The content created by the Sleep and Health Education Program is based on our belief that, as sleep experts and publishers, we have an unwavering obligation to build and maintain the public's trust in the validity of the information we present. This obligation extends to our choice of funders, partners, and the individuals who write, edit, design, program, and review the program's content, or whose involvement with the program creates an opportunity, however indirect, to influence the information we publish.

A conflict of interest is a situation in which someone in a position of trust has competing professional or personal interests. Such competing interests can make it difficult to fulfill his or her duties impartially. A conflict of interest may exist even if no unethical or improper act results from it. Conflicts of interest can create an appearance of impropriety that can undermine confidence in an institution, product, or public or personal interaction. On this page, the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School is disclosing relationships between contributors and reviewers of editorial content to this website and relevant outside entities1. We believe that this disclosure fosters an environment of openness and transparency related to the content of this website, in which relevant commercial or noncommercial interests are disclosed. It is our intention that site visitors will be able to form their own judgments about potential conflicts based on disclosure information2 and determine whether any of the listed relationships have unduly influenced the content presented.

Funding for this site is provided by the Harvard Medical School Division of Sleep Medicine through the use of unrestricted educational grants from the following corporations and not-for-profit organizations:

  • Cephalon, Inc.
  • Sanofi-aventis, Inc.
  • Sepracor, Inc.
  • Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, Inc.
  • Jazz Pharmaceuticals
  • TEVA
  • Wake Up Narcolepsy
  • Simmons

The following is the disclosure information for the website editors:

Insomnia Module Authors and Editors:

Jacqueline Do, Pre-doctoral Fellow, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, is supported by a training grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (5T32HL007901-23).

Stuart F. Quan, MD, Gerald E. McGuiness Professor of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Harvard Division of Sleep Medicine, also is employed by the Brigham and Women's Hospital and the University of Arizona; receives research support from the National Institutes of Health; and is a consultant to Whispersom, Bryte Bed and Best Doctors.

Sleep and Health Education Program Editor-in-Chief:

Stuart F. Quan, MD, Gerald E. McGuiness Professor of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Harvard Division of Sleep Medicine, See above disclosure

The following is the disclosure information for all website contributors and participants:

Stephen Almira, PhD, Instructor in Psychology, Harvard Medical School, see Healthy Sleep Disclosures

Suzanne Bertisch, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, reports Grant support from NIH, PCORI, and ApniMed and has received personal consultant fees from Eisai, OptumCare, and Gershon Lehman Group.

Charles A. Czeisler, PhD, MD, Frank Baldino, Jr. Ph.D. Professor of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, reports grants to BWH from FAA, NHLBI, NIA, NIOSH, NASA, and DOD; is/was a paid consultant to AARP, American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, Eisenhower Medical Center, Emory University, Inselspital Bern, Institute of Digital Media and Child Development, Klarman Family Foundation, M. Davis and Co, Physician's Seal, Sleep Research Society Foundation, State of Washington Board of Pilotage Commissioners, Tencent Holdings Ltd, Teva Pharma Australia, UC San Diego, University of Washington, DR Capital, Zhaode Group and Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc, in which Dr. Czeisler also holds an equity interest; received travel support from Annenberg Center for Health Sciences at Eisenhower, Aspen Brain Institute, Bloomage International Investment Group, Inc., UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Bouley Botanical, Dr. Stanley Ho Medical Development Foundation, European Biological Rhythms Society, German National Academy of Sciences (Leopoldina), Illuminating Engineering Society, National Safety Council, National Sleep Foundation, Society for Research on Biological Rhythms, Sleep Research Society Foundation, Stanford Medical School Alumni Association, Tencent Holdings Ltd, University of Zurich, and Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, Office of Naval Research, Salk Institute for Biological Studies/Fondation Ipsen; receives research/education support through BWH from Cephalon, Mary Ann & Stanley Snider via Combined Jewish Philanthropies, Harmony Biosciences LLC, Jazz Pharmaceuticals PLC Inc, Johnson & Johnson, NeuroCare, Inc., Philips Respironics Inc/Philips Homecare Solutions, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Regional Home Care, Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd, Sanofi SA, Optum, ResMed, San Francisco Bar Pilots, Sanofi, Schneider, Simmons, Sysco, Philips, Vanda Pharmaceuticals; is/was an expert witness in legal cases, including those involving Advanced Power Technologies, Aegis Chemical Solutions LLC, Amtrak; Casper Sleep Inc, C&J Energy Services, Catapult Energy Services Group, LLC, Covenant Testing Technologies, LLC, Dallas Police Association, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, Espinal Trucking/Eagle Transport Group LLC/Steel Warehouse Inc, FedEx, Greyhound Lines Inc/Motor Coach Industries/FirstGroup America, Pomerado Hospital/Palomar Health District, PAR Electrical Contractors Inc, Product & Logistics Services LLC/Schlumberger Technology Corp/Gelco Fleet Trust, Puckett Emergency Medical Services LLC, South Carolina Central Railroad Company LLC, Union Pacific Railroad, United Parcel Service/UPS Ground Freight Inc, and Vanda Pharmaceuticals; serves as the incumbent of an endowed professorship provided to Harvard University by Cephalon, Inc.; and receives royalties from McGraw Hill, and Philips Respironics for the Actiwatch-2 and Actiwatch Spectrum devices. Dr. Czeisler’s interests were reviewed and are managed by the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Mass General Brigham in accordance with their conflict of interest policies.

Sat Bir Singh Khalsa, PhD, Assistant Professor Medicine, Harvard Medical School reports no commercial financial conflicts of interest.

Shadab Rahman, PhD, Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School holds patents for prevention of circadian rhythm disruption by using optical filters and improving sleep in individuals exposed to light at night using optical filters; owns equity in Melcort Inc. These interests were reviewed and managed by Brigham and Women's Hospital and Mass General Brigham in accordance with their conflict of interest policies.

Eric Zhou, MD, Assistant Professor Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, reports funding from Jazz Pharmaceuticals and Harmony Biosciences. 

For disclosure information for the Sleep and Health Education Program's Editorial Board:
See Healthy Sleep Disclosures

The following is the disclosure information for the External Review Board:

Carol M Baldwin, PhD: No conflicts to disclose

Patricia Haynes, PhD: Grant support from NIH, and professional fees from the city of Tucson

1 Any for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or government agency whose products or services could benefit from sleep program content, with the exception of WGBH, Harvard University and its schools, and Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research institutes.