Although there are many things that negatively impact sleep, there are nearly as many strategies and treatments available that can help. An important start in improving sleep is identifying and addressing the factors that disturb sleep.

Dr. Lawrence Epstein describes the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle to ensure good sleep.

The features in this section provide a wide range of strategies and tips for eliminating (or at least mitigating) the effects of things that interfere with sleep.

  • Behavioral Sleep Consultation

    For those who struggle nightly with insomnia, a consultation with a sleep behavioral specialist can provide relief.

    Dr. Amira talking with Margaret

    People who are able to look at their sleep problems and tackle them in a program that makes sense to them can be very successful in overcoming the problems.

    -Dr. Steven Amira, Behavioral Sleep Medicine Specialist

    Watch one woman's journey towards overcoming her lifelong problems with sleep after consulting with a behavioral sleep medicine specialist who identified her sleep problems and offered practical solutions.

    Margaret describes her lifelong struggle with insomnia.

    Margaret meets with Dr. Stephen Amira, a behavioral sleep specialist, to identify the possible causes of her insomnia.

    Dr. Amira presents Margaret with a program of strategies designed to help her get better sleep.

    Margaret talks about the challenges and successes she has had after six weeks of implementing the behavioral sleep strategies.

  • Twelve Simple Tips to Improve Your Sleep

    The importance of controlling light exposure and other powerful alerting cues, especially at bedtime, should never be underestimated.

    Falling asleep may seem like an impossible dream when you’re awake at 3 a.m., but good sleep is more under your control than you might think. Following healthy sleep habits can make the difference between restlessness and restful slumber. Researchers have identified a variety of practices and habits—known as “sleep hygiene"—that can help anyone maximize the hours they spend sleeping, even those whose sleep is affected by insomnia, jet lag, or shift work.

    Sleep hygiene may sound unimaginative, but it just may be the best way to get the sleep you need in this 24/7 age. Here are some simple tips (Download these tips and more) for making the sleep of your dreams a nightly reality:

    #1 Avoid Caffeine, Alcohol, Nicotine, and Other Chemicals that Interfere with Sleep

    Cup of Coffee
    Caffeinated products decrease a person’s quality of sleep.

    As any coffee lover knows, caffeine is a stimulant that can keep you awake. So avoid caffeine (found in coffee, tea, chocolate, cola, and some pain relievers) for four to six hours before bedtime. Similarly, smokers should refrain from using tobacco products too close to bedtime.

    Although alcohol may help bring on sleep, after a few hours it acts as a stimulant, increasing the number of awakenings and generally decreasing the quality of sleep later in the night. It is therefore best to limit alcohol consumption to one to two drinks per day, or less, and to avoid drinking within three hours of bedtime.

    Dr. Lawrence Epstein describes how caffeine works to promote alertness, but can also inhibit restful sleep.

    #2 Turn Your Bedroom into a Sleep-Inducing Environment

    A quiet, dark, and cool environment can help promote sound slumber. Why do you think bats congregate in caves for their daytime sleep? To achieve such an environment, lower the volume of outside noise with earplugs or a "white noise" appliance. Use heavy curtains, blackout shades, or an eye mask to block light, a powerful cue that tells the brain that it's time to wake up. Keep the temperature comfortably cool—between 60 and 75°F—and the room well ventilated. And make sure your bedroom is equipped with a comfortable mattress and pillows. (Remember that most mattresses wear out after ten years.)

    Also, if a pet regularly wakes you during the night, you may want to consider keeping it out of your bedroom.

    It may help to limit your bedroom activities to sleep and sex only. Keeping computers, TVs, and work materials out of the room will strengthen the mental association between your bedroom and sleep.

    #3 Establish a Soothing Pre-Sleep Routine

    Person reading in bed
    Light reading before bed is a good way to prepare yourself for sleep although it may be counterproductive if you have insomnia.

    Ease the transition from wake time to sleep time with a period of relaxing activities an hour or so before bed. Take a bath (the rise, then fall in body temperature promotes drowsiness), read a book, watch television, or practice relaxation exercises. Avoid stressful, stimulating activities—doing work, discussing emotional issues. Physically and psychologically stressful activities can cause the body to secrete the stress hormone cortisol, which is associated with increasing alertness. If you tend to take your problems to bed, try writing them down—and then putting them aside.

    #4 Go to Sleep When You’re Truly Tired

    Struggling to fall sleep just leads to frustration. If you’re not asleep after 20 minutes, get out of bed, go to another room, and do something relaxing, like reading or listening to music until you are tired enough to sleep.

    #5 Don’t Be a Nighttime Clock-Watcher

    Staring at a clock in your bedroom, either when you are trying to fall asleep or when you wake in the middle of the night, can actually increase stress, making it harder to fall asleep. Turn your clock’s face away from you.

    And if you wake up in the middle of the night and can’t get back to sleep in about 20 minutes, get up and engage in a quiet, restful activity such as reading or listening to music. And keep the lights dim; bright light can stimulate your internal clock. When your eyelids are drooping and you are ready to sleep, return to bed.

    #6 Use Light to Your Advantage

    Natural light keeps your internal clock on a healthy sleep-wake cycle. So let in the light first thing in the morning and get out of the office for a sun break during the day.

    #7 Keep Your Internal Clock Set with a Consistent Sleep Schedule

    Woman asleep
    Having a regular sleep schedule helps to ensure better quality and consistent sleep.

    Having a regular sleep schedule helps to ensure better quality and consistent sleep.

    Going to bed and waking up at the same time each day sets the body’s "internal clock" to expect sleep at a certain time night after night. Try to stick as closely as possible to your routine on weekends to avoid a Monday morning sleep hangover. Waking up at the same time each day is the very best way to set your clock, and even if you did not sleep well the night before, the extra sleep drive will help you consolidate sleep the following night. Learn more about the importance of synchronizing the clock in The Drive to Sleep and Our Internal Clock.

    Dr. Stephen Amira describes the importance of waking up at the same time each day.

    #8 Nap Early—Or Not at All

    Many people make naps a regular part of their day. However, for those who find falling asleep or staying asleep through the night problematic, afternoon napping may be one of the culprits. This is because late-day naps decrease sleep drive. If you must nap, it’s better to keep it short and before 5 p.m.

    Dr. Stephen Amira discusses the benefits of short naps.

    #9 Lighten Up on Evening Meals

    Eating a pepperoni pizza at 10 p.m. may be a recipe for insomnia. Finish dinner several hours before bedtime and avoid foods that cause indigestion. If you get hungry at night, snack on foods that (in your experience) won't disturb your sleep, perhaps dairy foods and carbohydrates.

    #10 Balance Fluid Intake

    Drink enough fluid at night to keep from waking up thirsty—but not so much and so close to bedtime that you will be awakened by the need for a trip to the bathroom.

    #11 Exercise Early

    Exercise can help you fall asleep faster and sleep more soundly—as long as it's done at the right time. Exercise stimulates the body to secrete the stress hormone cortisol, which helps activate the alerting mechanism in the brain. This is fine, unless you're trying to fall asleep. Try to finish exercising at least three hours before bed or work out earlier in the day.

    #12 Follow Through

    Some of these tips will be easier to include in your daily and nightly routine than others. However, if you stick with them, your chances of achieving restful sleep will improve. That said, not all sleep problems are so easily treated and could signify the presence of a sleep disorder such as apnearestless legs syndromenarcolepsy, or another clinical sleep problem. If your sleep difficulties don’t improve through good sleep hygiene, you may want to consult your physician or a sleep specialist. Learn more at When to Seek Treatment.